Plastic Packaging and The Inconvenient Truths Of Recycling

Plastic Packaging Myths

I grew up in the 80s and 90s learning about the importance of recycling. Blue boxes were introduced everywhere – schools, homes, malls, parks, and other public spaces all encouraging us to reduce, reuse and recycle. The mantra reduce, reuse, recycle was drilled into us, but somewhere along the way it just became recycle, recycle, recycle. We seem to have forgotten that recycling is the last step, the last resort if you will, in our waste management process – and the myths of plastic packaging recycling have created some disastrous consequences for the earth and our health. The inconvenient truth is that recycling isn’t all we think it is, and we’re going to have to do a little more.

I know this might sound dramatic but the amount of garbage being produced has kept me up at night. It happened after I watched the “Recycling Scam” episode of the Netflix series Broken. We are producing more plastic than ever, and less and less is recyclable. I hate that kids toys are becoming as disposable as our plastic-derived clothing. (You know what polyester and acrylic are, right? Plastic!) I hate that everything comes over-packaged and with all the online shopping we do, there’s now packaging on top of the packaging. The sequin trends, the plastic microbeads in personal care products, the plastic clamshells that berries are sold in, the startling amount of e-waste we’re making by constantly wanting to upgrade our gadgets (and the makers themselves building obsolescence into their products).

Okay, I’ll stop here. It’s all just so much, and it’s so unnecessary.

The content of this post is troubling and overwhelming, but the bright side of the coin is there are many things we can do to reduce our plastic use! We have so many options and so many ways to personally make an impact – which is what inspired my newest course for the Academy of Culinary Nutrition called Everyday Culinary Nutrition.

First, the reality check.

How Much Plastic Are We Buying/Throwing Away?

(The above is a sweet clip from my new Everyday Culinary Nutrition course)

I was disturbed to discover recently that Canada, where I live, produces the most waste in the world –  1.33 billion metric tonnes per year total, which is 36.1 metric tonnes per person. Of course, not all of this is recyclable and plastic waste. Despite our recycling programs, only 9% of our plastic is actually recycled – the rest mainly ends up in the landfill (86%), 4% is burned, and the remaining 1% ends up in the oceans.

This tracks with global statistics – that 9% number is the same in the US, and since 1950 only 9% of plastics ever created have been recycled. We are using plastic more than ever before. Nearly half of all plastics ever produced have been made since the year 2000.

Plastic doesn’t degrade quickly, so once it’s made it’s here to stay. And BPA-free plastic is still plastic.

We’ve been convinced that we can somehow offset or cancel out our plastic waste by recycling it, but most of the time what we’re tossing into our bins just ends up as garbage. Let’s take a look at some common recycling myths and what we can do about them.

Myth: All plastics are recyclable

recycling plastic myths

I’m sorry to say that they are not. This is one of the biggest myths of recycling. Plastics are labelled with numbers from 1 to 7 – you can read the full details about what the numbers mean here. Generally, plastics labelled with 1, 2 and 5 are more easily recycled.

What do plastic numbers mean

The challenge with plastics is that they don’t all have the same properties, which makes it much more difficult to melt them down together – they just aren’t compatible. Also, just because something is recyclable doesn’t mean there are the facilities or equipment in every community and area to process it. This has led to countries shipping their plastic waste across oceans to let other countries deal with it (see more on that below).

Plastic production is only expected to increase in the next few decades. The Environmental Defence states that “Even if we started to recycle ten times more than we have in the last 30 years, we won’t be able to catch up with the massive wave of plastic production being projected.”

In short, we have failed in our recycling management.

Again, I highly recommend watching “Recycling Scam”, an episode that is part of the Broken documentary series on Netflix. It takes an in-depth look at how and why the world’s plastic is recycled, and how industry and lobbyists are working to ensure our plastic feast continues – it’s well worth the time to watch it.

Breaking Down The Inconvenient Truths About Recycling

Truth #1: Just Because We Drop It In The Recycling Bin, Doesn’t Mean It’s Recyclable

recycling plastic myths

Even if we are conscientious recyclers, only putting things in the bin that belong there, still doesn’t mean they’ll end up being recycled. For example, at the residential level, if we don’t clean our containers properly they are considered contaminated and are sent to the landfill.

If we don’t clean our containers properly they are considered contaminated and are sent to the landfill.

Also, being able to sort your residential recycling matters. Some cities have separate bins for glass, plastics, and paper – this makes it easier to recycle everything. In places like Toronto, where I am, we toss everything in one bin and this is a challenge that leads to more items being thrown in the landfill.

There is an additional human error if people don’t pay attention at all and toss a ton of non-recyclables into the bin, which contaminates the entire bin. The contamination rate in Toronto is 26%. This has both financial and environmental costs.

Truth #2: We Create More Plastic Garbage Than We Can Manage and So We Ship Our Trash Overseas… Or Used To!

Our plastics, other recyclables, and garbage are being shipped to third world countries to deal with. I’m not just talking about Canada here, but also the United States and a number of other countries. For many years, China took plastic waste from around the world but after a ban in 2018, they are no longer accepting it. This left countries scrambling for alternatives, sending plastics and waste to places like Malaysia, Vietnam and the Philippines – with some countries like Malaysia taking a stand and sending it right back.

We can’t take the ‘out of sight, out of mind’ attitude anymore. There is no ‘away’. All these plastics have to go somewhere!

Truth #3: Recycling is Not As Environmentally Friendly As We Like To Think

If an item is successfully recycled, then sure, that is more environmentally friendly than not being recycled. But as we know only a small percentage is actually recycled, plus it takes fossil fuels and water to make plastics in the first place and then transform them into something new.

As well, plastic can only be recycled a limited number of times – so eventually it will end up as garbage even if it was made into yoga pants along the way.

The claim “made from recycled plastic”, which usually only includes a portion of the material, makes us feel good. It makes us feel like we are making a responsible purchase decision, but plastic remains plastic. Made from recycled plastic is better, but it’s not a solution.

Truth #4: Bioplastics or Other Compostables are Commonly Not Recyclable

Companies have been coming up with plastic alternatives made from things like corn, starches, oils, and other cellulose fibres. Corn-based takeaway containers and packaging are not as compostable or recyclable as we think because most cities don’t have the right equipment to break them down, and they don’t mix with other plastics so they will be thrown out due to contamination.

Still, I appreciate that companies are working towards innovative solutions. It just seems to me that everyone is operating in silos rather than working together to ensure the infrastructure is there from the creation of a plastic alternative to its endpoint.

Truth #5: Until Industry and Government Step In, It Is Up To Us To Do Something About Plastic Consumption and Recycling

recycling plastic myths

It might seem like we are all helpless against the tidal wave of plastic crashing down upon us. This isn’t true!

Yes, at times I do think it’s unfair for these massive companies to place the recycling responsibility onto us as consumers rather than changing their practices. After all, it was their desire for cheap materials and larger profits, and their marketing manipulations to get us to buy those products, that have contributed to this mess.

However, I wholeheartedly believe that if millions of us make small changes they all add up – and this is something that will benefit the environment and our health. Plus, our consumer habits have a trickle-up effect that can convince companies to change their ways.

Watch This!

YouTube video

What We Can Do To Help

Solution: Reduce and Reuse First!

The first thing we can do is be more mindful of our plastic consumption. Try to avoid buying food in plastic containers or single-use takeout containers. Yes, this means more cooking at home and fewer Uber Eats.

Take your own shopping bags to the store and use fabric bags for produce, and bring your own containers for bulk items. There are zero-waste grocery stores popping up where you can get everything from shampoo to olive oil to gluten-free pasta in refillable containers.

One of the things we’ve started doing is bringing our own glass containers to the butcher when we buy meat, and avoid purchasing meats that are pre-packaged as much as possible.

Solution: Stop Buying/Drinking Bottled Water

Bottled water is a scourge and one of the most common single-use plastics. What you are buying in many cases is a plastic bottle with some tap water in it.  The water source for bottled water isn’t as pure or pristine as the labels would like you to believe. And most of those bottles just end up in the landfill or the oceans.

Discover the best type of water here.

Solution: Make More From Scratch

Even if you’re buying a nutritious item or staple, it will likely come in a plastic or paper package like bread, crackers, hummus, guacamole, soup, etc. Learn how to make staple items from scratch using whole ingredients. I have a huge collection of recipes here to get you started.

Need more recipe inspiration and zero waste tips? Check out my self-paced online course Everyday Culinary Nutrition, where I teach you how to make easy culinary basics from scratch that allows you to minimize your packaging.

Solution: Aim For Products in Glass Instead of Plastic – and Reuse Them

Choose store-bought food items that are stored in glass – you’ll not only reduce your exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, but you can also reuse them for low-waste shopping, meal prep or food storage.

Solution: Pay Attention to Recyclable Numbers When Buying Products

If you must purchase a plastic package, check the recyclable number to see if it is a 1, 2 or 5. And then ensure you clean it and recycle it properly.

Solution: Avoid Storing Your Food In Plastic

Skip buying the plastic Tupperware, plastic wrap and plastic baggies for food storage. Here are 5 alternatives to plastic for food storage you can try, as well as advice for how you can ditch kitchen disposables.

Solution: Refill Larger Single-Use Containers

More and more package-free shops are popping up and even our local hardware store has a refill station. These options invite us to save and refill laundry soap containers, vinegar, shampoo, soap, cleaning products and more. Refilling requires little effort yet is a big game-changer. Here in Toronto, I love the curated products at Saponetti. Also, making your own products is also a fun option.

Solution: Eat More Seasonally

When we buy berries in the summer, it’s more likely we can find them in paper containers or plastic baskets that farmers will take back. We can easily then avoid the single-use plastic clamshell. Shopping seasonally means buying winter squashes and root vegetables in the winter, instead of plastic-wrapped cucumbers and cauliflowers.

Solution: Be Mindful of Shopping Habits

Take stock of what you actually have and buy what you need, rather than mindlessly buying new synthetic fabric-made (polyester, acrylic, sporting fabrics) fast fashion clothes, shoes, electronics, the newest gadgets, and other items. If you have kids, it can feel impossible to prevent the plastic garbage from creeping into your home. Take a Marie Kondo-style approach to toys and empower your kids to understand why you’re collectively making the choices that you are. A minimalistic approach to shopping can result in amazing results – find out what happened during my experiment with minimalism.

Plastic waste solutions

Take Action and Speak Up

Speak up and show your support for local initiatives like plastic bag bans, bans on straws or bans on single-use plastics. There is legislation happening at local, provincial/state and federal levels so look up your local representative in government and tell them how you feel about plastics, and what you’d like to see happen in your community. You can also write to companies.

Please remember that it’s easier to catch flies with honey than vinegar – so remember to be respectful when asserting your voice.

In response to my recent deep dive into this matter, I was inspired to create a course for the Academy of Culinary Nutrition called Everyday Culinary Nutrition. Though the focus is not on the waste we make, it is on how we can cook more from scratch and less from packaging. Please check it out here.

No-Plastic Grocery Shopping Challenge

Want to join me for a no-plastic grocery shopping challenge? For one week, try saying no to all plastic.

  • No plastic bags, no plastic packaging, no single-use takeout or coffee cups
  • Bring your own bags to the grocery store, buy loose items only (produce, bulk, etc.) that aren’t encased in plastic
  • Take your own containers/reusable mug if you want takeout of some kind
  • Save empty dish soap, laundry soap, shampoo bottles and visit your nearest refill depot

Let me know how you did in the comments!

Further Reading

On My Mind Episode 16: Plastic Packaging and The Inconvenient Truths Of Recycling

Subscribe today on your favourite podcast app and never miss an episode.

On My Mind Podcast Episode #16 Quote


  1. A friend had posted a video on FaceBook about a facility that grinds up the plastic, melts it, puts it through a reverse engineering process, & turns it back into the petroleum from which it was made. The facility was located in either Idaho or Utah.
    Now, I’m old enough to remember when wet items came in glass, dry goods like beans & rice were packaged in cellophane, & frozen goods were packaged in small packages much like many cereals are today. There were small paper bags in the produce section for your fresh produce, & paper bags at the checkout. I realize that’s a lot of paper, but it’s easier to grow a tree than to put more oil into the ground. And paper certainly is easier to recycle.

  2. This is a great article! I and alot more, but not enough!, have known this for years…people dont get it! They are so comfortable with their easy lives! They think just throw it in the garbage or recycle bin and it ges away!!! There is so much waste in the world I really don’t think it will ever stop! However we need to try! People who have the resources need to get it to the public! I listen to CBC radio and they have great information on recycling not working and scientists saying how bad climate change is but not enough people listen to CBC! Get in touch with our PM and David Suzuki and inform people please. Do it for our children so they get to live a life time!!!

    Sincerely, stella marie

  3. This message needs to be a mandatory part of school curriculum. Imagine how much change would take place if our children took up this recycling “torch.” (It fits perfectly in science, health, social studies. I teach it in my high school French class.)

  4. I am soooo thankful to see someone else that feels the same way that I do about this. I have decided though I can only focus on what I can do in my own difficult situation: make certain I chose recyclable materials we have the management for & I wash alllllllll my recycleable items yes intact even my garbage (accept compost) in the sink like dishes after doing my dishes I Refill water and wash them—the dispose. Mainly the reason was for the contamination I found out about as you did and secondly because the pests in our suburb area. THEN what’s even MOST valueable, is I TALK TO EVERYONE I can about recycle contamination! I live by the statement: it’s not what you know but how many ppl you TEACH what you know. THank you sooo much for this research share!

  5. This article goes well with a sustainability course I’m currently taking – very well-written and comprehensive article. The recycling problem is a now a global issue and getting the word out like this is key to ensure we change our ways. Thanks you so much Megan for writing this insightful yet scarily “inconvenient” article!

  6. I recently bought some silicon containers since the glass storage containers just were too heavy and took up a lot of space. What are your thoughts on those? Also I got some reusable storage bags from Amazon…I am showing the links and would love to hear your thought on these.

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